“Sus mandamientos no son penosos”: un abordaje historiográfico de la relación entre protestantismo y aflicción

  • Andrés Gattinoni Universidad Nacional de San Martín / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Argentina
Palabras clave: Max Weber, protestantismo, aflicción, desesperación, melancolía

Resumen

En los estudios históricos sobre el protestantismo existe un topos que consiste en asociar distintas denominaciones, en especial el calvinismo, con la producción de un sufrimiento psicológico profundo y patológico. Este tópico deriva en cierta medida de la obra de Max Weber, aunque su origen es más antiguo. Este artículo ofrece un análisis de ese tema en la historiografía sobre el protestantismo inglés. En primer lugar, describe el derrotero de ese problema historiográfico y presenta las críticas que se realizaron en distintos momentos. En segundo término, da cuenta de los aportes recientes de la historia de las emociones que podrían permitir un enfoque superador. Finalmente, destaca la necesidad de observar la dimensión polémica de los discursos acerca de la aflicción protestante y sostiene que, para estudiarla, es preciso considerar especialmente el contexto de producción y el vocabulario específico de las fuentes primarias.

Citas

Addison, J., & Steele, R. (1806). The Spectator (A. Chalmers, Ed.; Vol. 7). Londres: J. Johnson et al.

Asprem, E. (2014). The Problem of Disenchantment. Scientific Naturalism and Esoteric Discourse, 1900-1939. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Bartra, R. (2018 [2004]). El spleen del capitalismo: Weber y la ética pagana. En El duelo de los ángeles: Locura sublime, tedio y melancolía en el pensamiento moderno (pp. 36-60). México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Bell, M. (2014). Melancholia. The Western Malady. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Benjamin, W. (2012 [1925]). Origen del Trauerspiel alemán (Trad. Pivetta, C.). Buenos Aires: Gorla.

Bjerg, M. (2019). Una genealogía de la historia de las emociones. Quinto Sol, 23(1), 1-20.

Boddice, R. (2018). The History of Emotions. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Bunyan, J. (1996 [1678]). The Pilgrim’s Progress. Chatham: Wordsworth.

Burton, R. (2001 [1621]). The Anatomy of Melancholy. Nueva York: New York Review of Books.

Clarke, E. (1886). Susanna Wesley. Londres: W. H. Allen & co.

Collinson, P. (2003). Elizabethans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, T. (2011). John Owen, Richard Baxter and the Formation of Nonconformity. Farnham: Ashgate.

Crouzet, D. (2001). Calvino. Barcelona: Ariel.

Cummins, S., & Stille, M. (2021). Religious Emotions and Emotions in Religion: The Case of Sermons. Journal of Religious History, 45(1), 3-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9809.12726

Dallimore, A. (1993). Susanna Wesley. The Mother of John and Charles Wesley. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

Delumeau, J. (1991). Sin and Fear: The Emergence of a Western Guilt Culture, 13th-18th Centuries. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Delumeau, J. (2006). Lo mandado y lo vivido. En El cristianismo del futuro (pp. 331-361). Bilbao: Ediciones Mensajero.

Delumeau, J. (2017). El miedo en occidente. Barcelona: Taurus.

Dixon, T. (2012). “Emotion”: The History of a Keyword in Crisis. Emotion Review, 4(4), 338-344.

Dowden, E. (1910). Puritan and Anglican. Studies in Literature (3.a ed.). Londres: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd.

Dunan-Page, A. (2006). Grace Overwhelming: John Bunyan, the Pilgrim’s Progress and the Extremes of the Baptist Mind. Berna: Peter Lang.

Durkheim, É. (2002 [1897]). Suicide: A Study in Sociology (Ed. Simpson, G.). Londres-Nueva York: Routledge.

Frevert, U., Scheer, M., Schmidt, A., Eitler, P., Hitzer, B., Verheyen, N., Gammerl, B., Bailey, C., & Pernau, M. (2014). Emotional Lexicons. Continuity and Change in the Vocabulary of Feeling 1700-2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fromm, E. (1973 [1941]). El miedo a la libertad. Buenos Aires: Paidós.

Gauchet, M. (2005). El desencantamiento del mundo. Una historia política de la religión (Trad. Molina, E.).Madrid: Trotta / Universidad de Granada.

Gil Villegas M., F. (2013). Max Weber y la guerra académica de los cien años. La polémica en torno a La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo (1905-2012). México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Ginzburg, C. (2012). Our Words, and Theirs: A Reflection on the Historian’s Craft, Today. En S. Fellman & M. Rahikainen (Eds.), Historical Knowledge: In Quest of Theory, Method and Evidence (97-119). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Gowland, A. (2006a). The Worlds of Renaissance Melancholy. Robert Burton in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gowland, A. (2006b). The Problem of Early Modern Melancholy. Past & Present, 191(1), 77-120.

Haller, W. (1938). The Rise of Puritanism. Nueva York y Londres: Columbia University Press.

Harmon, R. L. (1968). Susanna, Mother of the Wesleys. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Harrison, G. E. (1938). Son To Susanna: The Private Life Of John Wesley. Nashville: Cokesbury Press.

Heyd, M. (1981). The Reaction to Enthusiasm in the Seventeenth Century: Towards an Integrative Approach. The Journal of Modern History, 53(2), 258-280.

Heyd, M. (1995). «Be Sober and Reasonable». The Critique of Enthusiasm in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries. Leiden-Nueva York-Colonia: Brill.

Hill, C. (1961). Protestantism and the Rise of Capitalism. En F. J. Fisher (Ed.), Essays in the Economic and Social History of Tudor and Stuart England (15-39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hill, C. (1975). The World Turned Upside Down. Radical Ideas During the English Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Hill, C. (1990 [1970]). God's Englishman. Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution. Londres: Penguin.

Hill, C. (1993). Review: The Persecutory Imagination: English Puritanism and the Literature of Religious Despair. Literature & History, 2(2), 96-98.

Hill, C. (2016 [1988]). A Turbulent, Seditious, and Factious People. John Bunyan and His Church, 1628-1688. Londres: Verso.

Hodgkin, K. (2007). Madness in Seventeenth-Century Autobiography. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jason A., J.-S. (2017). The Myth of Disenchantment. Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Johnstone, N. (2006). The Devil and Demonism in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kaufman, P. I. (1996). Prayer, Despair, and Drama: Elizabethan Introspection. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Kirk, J. (1865). The Mother of the Wesleys: A Biography. Cincinnati: Poe and Hitchcock.

Kleinman, A. (1988). Rethinking Psychiatry: From Cultural Category to Personal Experience. Nueva York: The Free Press.

Kleinman, A. (2020). The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing, And The Human Condition. Nueva York: Basic Books.

Knox, R. A. (1950). Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion, with Special Reference to the XVII and XVIII Centuries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Laborie, L. (2015). Enlightening Enthusiasm: Prophecy and Religious Experience in Early Eighteenth-century England. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Law, W. (1729). A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life. Adapted to the State and Condition of All Orders of Christians. Londres: William Innys.

Lecky, W. E. H. (1921 [1892]). A History Of England In The Eighteenth Century: Vol. III. Londres: Longmans, Green and Co.

Lewis, C. S. (1954). English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Lim, P. C.-H. (2004). In Pursuit of Purity, Unity, and Liberty: Richard Baxter’s Puritan Ecclesiology in Its Seventeenth-Century Context. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

Luther, M. (2002). D. Martin Luthers Werke (U. Köpf, H. Junghans, & K. Stackmann, Eds.; Vol. 11). Weimar: Böhlaus.

Lutz, C. A. (1998). Unnatural Emotions. Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and their Change to Western Theory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lutz, C. A. & Abu-Lughod, L. (1990). Language and the Politics of Emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

MacDonald, M. (1992). The Fearefull Estate of Francis Spira: Narrative, Identity, and Emotion in Early Modern England. Journal of British Studies, 31(1), 32-61.

Méndez, A. (2021). Miedo, epidemia y brujería. Apuntes sobre la comunidad emocional de un clérigo puritano inglés (s. XVI y XVII). XI Jornadas de Historia Moderna y Contemporánea, Bahía Blanca.

Newton, J. A. (1968). Susanna Wesley and the Puritan Tradition in Methodism. Londres: Epworth Press.

Oatley, K. (2004). Emotions: A Brief History. Oxford: Blackwell.

Parish, H. (Ed.). (2015). «Disenchantment» of Europe? EnSuperstition and Magic in Early Modern Europe. A Reader (pp. 307-385). Londres: Bloomsbury.

Pernau, M., & Rajamani, I. (2016). Emotional Translations: Conceptual History Beyond Language. History and Theory, 55(1), 46-65.

Plamper, J. (2012). The History of Emotions: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pocock, J. G. A. (1997). Enthusiasm: The Antiself of Enlightenment. Huntington Library Quarterly, 60(1/2), 7-28.

Rack, H. D. (2004). Wesley, Samuel (bap. 1662, d. 1735). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reddy, W. M. (2001). The Navigation of Feeling. A Framework for the History of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosaldo, M. Z. (1980). Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot and Notions of Self and Social Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenwein, B. H. (2006). Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Rosenwein, B. H. (2016). Generations of Feeling. A History of Emotions, 600-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenwein, B. H. (2018). Were Puritan Emotions Gendered? (New England, mid-1600s). Clio. Women, Gender, History, 47, 67-88.

Rubin, J. H. (1994). Religious Melancholy and Protestant Experience in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ryrie, A. (2013). Being Protestant in Reformation Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ryrie, A.& Schwanda, T. (Eds.). (2016). Puritanism and Emotion in the Early Modern World. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Scaer, D. P. (1983). The Concept of Anfechtung in Luther’s Thought. Concordia Theological Quarterly, 47(1), 15-30.

Scheer, M. (2020). Enthusiasm. Emotional Practices of Conviction in Modern Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, J. (2007). Melancholy and the Care of the Soul. Religion, Moral Philosophy and Madness in Early Modern England. Hampshire: Ashgate.

Scribner, R. W. (1993). The Reformation, Popular Magic, and the «Disenchantment of the World». The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 23(3), 475-494. https://doi.org/10.2307/206099.

Shapin, S. & Schaffer, S. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump. Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Sharp, J. (1684). A Discourse Concerning Conscience; Wherein An Account is Given of the Nature, and Rule, and Obligation of It. And the Case of Those Who Separate from the Communion of the Church of England as by Law Established, Upon this Pretence, that it is Against their Conscience to Joyn It, is Stated and Discussed. Londres: Walter Kettilby.

Sharp, J. (1685). A Discourse of Conscience. Concerning a Doubting Conscience. Londres: Walter Kettilby.

Sharp, J. (1716). Sixteen Casuistical Sermons Preached on Several Occasions. Londres: Walter Kettilby.

Simons, R. C. & Hughes, C. C. (2012 [1985]). The Culture-Bound Syndromes: Folk Illnesses of Psychiatric and Anthropological Interest. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Simons, R. C., & Hughes, C. C. (1993). Culture-Bound Syndromes. En A. Gaw (Ed.), Culture, Ethnicity, and Mental Illness (75-93). Washington D. C.-Londres: American Psychiatric Press.

Simpson, J. (2019). Permanent Revolution. The Reformation and the Illiberal Roots of Liberalism. Cambridge, MA-Londres: Harvard University Press.

Skinner, Q. (2002). Visions of Politics. Regarding Method (Vol. 1).

Stachniewski, J. (1991). The Persecutory Imagination: English Puritanism and the Literature of Religious Despair. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Starkie, A. (2002). William Law and Cambridge Jacobitism, 1713-16. Historical Research, 75(190), 448-467. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2281.00160.

Sullivan, E. (2016). Beyond Melancholy: Sadness and Selfhood in Renaissance England. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tawney, R. H. (1937). Religion and the Rise Of Capitalism (2.a ed.). West Drayton: Penguin.

Thomas, K. (1991 [1971]). Religion and the Decline of Magic. Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century England. Londres: Penguin.

Thomas, K. (2009). The Ends of Life. Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England. Oxford-Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Thomas, K. (2020). Calvinism’s Discontents: Does Liberalism Have Its Roots in the Illiberal Upheavals of the English Reformation? The Nation. https://www.thenation.com/article/culture/james-simpson-permanent-revolution-review/.

Thompson, E. P. (1966). The Making of the English Working Class. Londres: Vintage.

Torpy, A. A. (2009). The Prevenient Piety of Samuel Wesley, Sr. Lanham-Toronto-Plymouth: Scarecrow Press.

Trevor-Roper, H. R. (1959). The General Crisis of the 17th Century. Past and Present, 16(1), 31-64.

Tyerman, L. (1866). Life and Times of the Rev. Samuel Wesley, M.A. Londres: Simpkin, Marshall & Co.

Walker, D. (2016). Piety and the Politics of Anxiety in Nonconformist Writing of the Later Stuart Period. En A. Ryrie & T. Schwanda (Eds.), Puritanism and Emotion in the Early Modern World (144-165). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Walker, D. P. (1964). The Decline of Hell. Seventeenth-Century Discussions of Eternal Torment. Londres: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Wallace, C. (2010). Wesley [née Annesley], Susanna (1669–1742), theological writer and educator. En Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/66878

Walzer, M. (1963). Puritanism as a Revolutionary Ideology. History and Theory, 3(1), 59-90. https://doi.org/10.2307/2504304

Walzer, M. (1965). The Revolution of the Saints. A Study in the Origins of the Radical Politics. Cambridge, MA-Londres: Harvard University Press.

Weber, M. (1992). Wissenschaft als Beruf. En Gesamtausgabe: Vol. XVII (71-111). Tubinga: J. C. B. Mohr.

Weber, M. (2004 [1905]). La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo. Buenos Aires: Andrómeda.

Weber, M. (2004). Science as a Vocation. En D. Owen & T. B. Strong (Eds.), The Vocation Lectures (Trad. Livingstone, R.) (1-31). Indianapolis-Cambridge: Hackett Publishing.

Weber, M. (2016). Die protestantische Ethik und der „Geist“ des Kapitalismus. Wiesbaden: Springer.

Wesley, J. (1920). Wesley’s Standard Sermons: Vol. II. Nashville: Publishing House M. E. Church.

Wesley, S. (1997). Susanna Wesley: The Complete Writings (Ed. Wallace, C. Jr.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Williamson, G. (1933). The Restoration Revolt Against Enthusiasm. Studies in Philology, 30(4), 571-603.

Zafirovski, M. (2007). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Authoritarianism. Puritanism, Democracy, and Society. Nueva York: Springer.

Žižek, S. (2009). The Fear of Four Words: A Modest Plea for the Hegelian Reading of Christianity. En C. Davis (Ed.), The Monstrosity of Christ: Paradox or Dialectic? (24-109). Cambridge, MA-Londres: The MIT Press.

Publicado
2022-01-17
Cómo citar
Gattinoni, A. (2022). “Sus mandamientos no son penosos”: un abordaje historiográfico de la relación entre protestantismo y aflicción. Anales De Historia Antigua, Medieval Y Moderna, 55(2). https://doi.org/10.34096/ahamm.v55.2.10147
Sección
Artículos